Climate Smart Soil and Water Conservation Practices
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The purpose of this study was to establish the appropriate climate smart soil and water conservation practices that enhance crop production for smallholder farmers in South Western Uganda, focusing on Mbarara, Isingiro and Ntungamo districts. This preliminary study focused on the following research questions: 1. What are the commonly used climate smart soil and water conservations practices in the region? 2. What are the smart soil and water conservation practices preferred by smallholder farmers in the region? 3. What are the challenges faced by smallholder farmers in application of climate smart soil and water conservation practices in the region? Both open-ended and closed ended questionnaires were used to answer the set research questions. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 23. Results show that smallholder farmers commonly use and prefer mulching (71%), application of organic manure (51.7%), digging trenches (21%); while the least commonly used practices included application of coffee husks (9.4%) and agroforestry (8.4%). The major challenges smallholder farmers were facing were limited capital to apply appropriate climate smart soil and water conservation practices. Capacity building and establishment of farmer-field groups to promote learning among peers were recommended. Further studies on nutrients and water holding capacities in Climate smart agriculture practices need to be conducted in south western Uganda.