Social-economic setting and potential use of cissus adenocaulis in treatment of gastrointestinal worms in cattle,Ntungamo District South Western Uganda.
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Despite the government‟s efforts to fight poverty, many cattle keepers in Ntugamo District have largely remained poor. They cannot afford to purchase veterinary drugs for de-worming their cows at a frequency recommended by veterinary doctors. Both the cattle and their products are of poor quality hence cannot fetch sufficient income for the farmers. This research aimed at establishing the socio-economic setting of Ngoma Sub County residents and to determine how Cissus adenocaulis, a traditional herbal medicine, can be utilized to de-worm cattle, which is a cheaper and affordable means of treatment that would improve the livestock production of the peasant farmers and reduce poverty in Ngoma Sub County. A total of 105 households were randomly selected from seven parishes and interviewed using both open and closed ended questionnaires. The body weights of ten selected animals were measured and rectal samples collected from each cow and preserved in 10% formal saline. The cows were subjected to different treatments with fresh and dry extracts from the herb Cissus adenocaulis, Albendazole 10% and water based on their body weight. Cissus extracts were obtained by collecting roots and leaves of the plant, some of which were pounded and dried to make powder while others were used fresh. These were dissolved in water in different dosages and at different temperatures before they were administered to the cows. Egg count per gram (EPG) of cow dung was carried out in the laboratory using ether concentration technique and a light microscope to determine the numbers and types of gastrointestinal worms present before and after administering the drugs. Treatment was done for 8 weeks and 14 days on the first set and second set of cows respectively. Results show that 80.9% of the population lives under low income (> $ 1 per month), 8.2% live under medium income level ($ 1- $ 50) while 10.9% live under high income level (> 50 per month). Cissus fresh leaves had almost the same effectiveness as Cissus fresh root (unpaired t test ixwith equal variance at α =1%; t =-0.3721; associated p value =0.6327). Both Cissus fresh leaves and Cissus fresh roots extracts had almost the same effectiveness as Albendazole 10% (unpaired t test with equal variance at α =1%; t =-0.3721; associated p value =0.6327). Both Cissus dry leaves and Cissus dry roots extracts were found to be more effective than Albendazole 10% (unpaired t test with equal variance at α =1%; t =1.7889; associated p value =0.0741). It was recommended that Ngoma Sub County cattle keepers should domesticate Cissus adenocaulis and use its herbal extracts to supplement veterinary drugs to de-wormers their cattle. Further studies to determine the bioactive ingredients present in Cissus extracts and to standardize their dosages need to be carried out. Cattle keepers in Ngoma Sub County should embrace poverty eradication programs to fight poverty in this area.
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